Information provided by The International DYSLEXIA Association® 
Is My Child Dyslexic? 

 Individuals with dyslexia have trouble with reading, writing, spelling and/or math in spite of average or above average intelligence and plenty of opportunities to learn. Individuals with dyslexia can learn, but 
they often need specialized instruction to overcome the problem. Often these individuals, who 
have talented and productive minds, are said to have a language learning difference. 
Common Characteristics of Dyslexia 

Most of us have one or two of these characteristics. That does not mean that everyone has 
dyslexia. A person with dyslexia usually has several of these characteristics that persist over 
time and interfere with his or her learning. 


      Oral Language 
        •   Late learning to talk 
        •   Difficulty pronouncing words 
        •   Difficulty acquiring vocabulary or using age appropriate grammar 
        •   Difficulty following directions 
        •   Confusion with before/after, right/left, and so on 
        •   Difficulty learning the alphabet, nursery rhymes, or songs 
        •   Difficulty understanding concepts and relationships 
        •   Difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems 

        •   Difficulty learning to read 
        •   Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (phonological awareness) 
        •   Difficulty with hearing and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness) 
        •   Difficulty distinguishing different sounds in words (phonological processing) 
        •   Difficulty in learning the sounds of letters (phonics) 
        •   Difficulty remembering names and shapes of letters, or naming letters rapidly 
        •   Transposing the order of letters when reading or spelling 
        •   Misreading or omitting common short words 
        •  “Stumbles” through longer words 
        •  Poor reading comprehension during oral or silent reading, often because words are not accurately read 
        •  Slow, laborious oral reading 

      Written Language 
       •   Difficulty putting ideas on paper 
       •   Many spelling mistakes 
       •   May do well on weekly spelling tests, but may have many spelling mistakes in daily work 
       •   Difficulty proofreading 
         Other Common Symptoms that Occur with Dyslexia 
       •   Difficulty naming colors, objects, and letters rapidly, in a sequence (RAN: rapid automatized naming) 
       •   Weak memory for lists, directions, or facts 
       •   Needs to see or hear concepts many times to learn them 
       •   Distracted by visual or auditory stimuli 
       •   Downward trend in achievement test scores or school performance 
       •   Inconsistent school work 
       •   Teacher says, “If only she would try harder,” or “He’s lazy.” 
       •   Relatives may have similar problems 

Common Characteristics of Other Related Learning Disorders

     Dysgraphia (Handwriting) 
       •   Unsure of handedness 
       •   Poor or slow handwriting 
       •   Messy and unorganized papers 
       •   Difficulty copying 
       •   Poor fine motor skills 
       •   Difficulty remembering the kinesthetic movements to form letters correctly 

     Dyscalculia (Math) 
       •   Difficulty counting accurately 
       •   May misread numbers 
       •   Difficulty memorizing and retrieving math facts 
       •   Difficulty copying math problems and organizing written work 
       •   Many calculation errors 
       •   Difficulty retaining math vocabulary and concepts 

     ADHD—Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Attention) 
       •    Inattention 
       •   Variable attention 
       •   Distractibility 
       •   Impulsivity 
       •   Hyperactivity 

     Executive Function/Organization 
       •   Loses papers 
       •   Poor sense of time 
       •   Forgets homework 
       •   Messy desk 
       •   Overwhelmed by too much input 
       •   Works slowly

              *If your child is having difficulties learning to read and you have noted several of these 
                characteristics in your child, he or she may need to be evaluated for dyslexia or a related 


                  What Kind of Instruction does my Child Need?

       Dyslexia and other related learning disorders cannot be cured. Proper instruction promotes 
       reading success and alleviates many difficulties associated with dyslexia. Instruction for 
       individuals with reading and related learning disabilities should be: 

                                      Intensive – given every day or very frequently for sufficient time. 

                                      Explicit – component skills for reading, spelling, and writing are explained, directly 
                                                        taught, and modeled by the teacher. Children are discouraged from guessing at words. 

                                      Systematic and Cumulative – has a definite, logical sequence of concept introduction; 
                                                                                            concepts are ordered from simple to more complex; each new concept                                                                                                   builds upon previously introduced concepts, with built in review to aid                                                                                                 memory and retrieval. 

                                      Structured – has step-by-step procedures for introducing, reviewing, and practicing 

                                      Multi-sensory – links listening, speaking, reading, and writing together; involves 
                                                                    movement and “hands on” learning. 


     Suggested Readings 

       Moats, L. C., & Dakin, K. E. (2007). Basic facts about dyslexia and other reading problems. 
       Baltimore: The International Dyslexia Association. 
       Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for 
                       reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf. 
       Tridas, E. Q. (Ed.). (2007). From ABC to ADHD: What every parent should know about 
                        dyslexia. Baltimore: The International Dyslexia Association.